DIFFERENTIATION OF TWO TYPES OF CULTURAL REMAINS OF
THE EASTERN ZHOU PERIOD IN NORTH CHINA
In the Spring—and—Autumn and Warring States periods, North China went throughremarkable changes in material culture, economic type, social formation and ethnographic aspect and entered a period of great prosperity, which brought about the North Chinese cultural zone with rather identical cultural character. Were the main ethnic groups in this cultural zone concerned with the “Rong,” “Di” and “Hu” recorded inancient Chinese documents? What difference existed between them? How was the replacement of the Rong and Di by the Hu reflected in material culture? The present paper tries to answer these questions through an integrated study of related archaeological data and literal evidence.
On the basis of a typological and morphological examination of northern bronzes andrelated objects, the available cultural remains can be divided into two types. The first type is represented by the cultural remains of the Di people in Zhong shan Princedom, which include inner and outer stone coffins, gold—wire—coiled earrings, tiger plaques, ornamented—guard—swords and knives, bronze fu cauldrons, and swing—chained pots with cord—net design. The royal mausoleums yielded standing--animal--shaped bronze vessels. These remains were discovered mainly in Yuanping, Hunyuan, and the SangganRiver valley in northern Hebei, northern Shaanxi to the west of the Yellow River and the Guanzhong region, and show a tendency to constant east ward migration.
The second type embraces the Eastern Zhou remains discovered in Inner Mongolia,Ningxia and Gansu.They are roughly the same in date and show still clearer identity. Thetombs contain commonly animal victims and four classes of funeral objects, i.e.horse--And--chariot trappings, tools and weapons, personal ornaments and pottery vessels. Their temporal and spatial coverage suggests that their owners must have been members of the “Hu” mentioned in literal records.
The two types of remains are varied chronologically and reflect distinct difference inmaterial culture, ethnographic aspect and economic life. If we link their localitiesrespectively, there will appear two strips roughly parallel with the Great Wall of theWarring States period, which must be of great significant to researching into the relationship between the Rong--Di and the Hu literally--recorded as ethnic groups in ancient North China, as well as to understanding the construction of the Great Wall.
Differentiation of Two Types of Culutral Remains of the Eastern Zhou Period in North China has been published on the No.2, 2009, ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA SINICA